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r3.gwflow - Calculates numerically transient, confined groundwater flow in three dimensions.


raster3d, voxel


r3.gwflow help
r3.gwflow [-ms] phead=string status=string hc_x=string hc_y=string hc_z=string [q=string] s=string [r=string] output=string [velocity=string] dt=float [maxit=integer] [error=float] [solver=name] [relax=float] [--overwrite] [--verbose] [--quiet]


Use 3D raster mask (if exists) with input maps
Use a sparse linear equation system, only available with iterative solvers
Allow output files to overwrite existing files
Verbose module output
Quiet module output


Input 3D raster map with initial piezometric heads in [m]
The status for each cell, = 0 - inactive, 1 - active, 2 - dirichlet
The x-part of the hydraulic conductivity tensor in [m/s]
The y-part of the hydraulic conductivity tensor in [m/s]
The z-part of the hydraulic conductivity tensor in [m/s]
Sources and sinks in [m^3/s]
Specific yield in 1/m
Recharge raster map in m^3/s
The piezometric head result of the numerical calculation will be written to this map
Calculate the groundwater distance velocity vector field
and write the x, y, and z components to maps named name_[xyz].
Name is basename for the new 3D raster maps.
The calculation time in seconds
Default: 86400
Maximum number of iteration used to solver the linear equation system
Default: 100000
Error break criteria for iterative solvers (jacobi, sor, cg or bicgstab)
Default: 0.0000000001
The type of solver which should solve the symmetric linear equation system
Options: gauss,lu,cholesky,jacobi,sor,cg,bicgstab,pcg
Default: cg
The relaxation parameter used by the jacobi and sor solver for speedup or stabilizing
Default: 1


This numerical module calculates transient, confined groundwater flow in three dimensions based on volume maps and the current 3D region resolution. All initial- and boundary-conditions must be provided as volume maps.

The module calculates the piezometric head and optionally the groundwater velocity field. The vector components can be visualized with ParaView if they are exported with r3.out.vtk.

The groundwater flow will always be calculated transient. For steady state computation the user should set the timestep to a large number (billions of seconds) or set the specific yield raster map to zero.


The groundwater flow calculation is based on Darcy's law and a finite volume discretization. The groundwater flow partial differential equation is of the following form:

(dh/dt)*S = Kxx * (d^2h/dx^2) + Kyy * (d^2h/dy^2) + Kzz * (d^2h/dz^2) + q

Two different boundary conditions are implemented, the Dirichlet and Neumann conditions. By default the calculation area is surrounded by homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. The calculation and boundary status of single cells can be set with the status map, the following cell states are supported:

The groundwater flow equation can be solved with several numerical solvers. Additionally a direct Gauss solver and a LU solver are available. Those direct solvers only work with quadratic matrices, so be careful using them with large maps (maps of size 10.000 cells will need more than one Gigabyte of RAM).


This small script creates a working groundwater flow area and data. It cannot be run in a lat/lon location.
# set the region accordingly
g.region res=25 res3=25 t=100 b=0 n=1000 s=0 w=0 e=1000 -p

#now create the input raster maps for a confined aquifer
r3.mapcalc "phead = if(row() == 1 && depth() == 4, 50, 40)"
r3.mapcalc "status = if(row() == 1 && depth() == 4, 2, 1)"
r3.mapcalc "well = if(row() == 20 && col() == 20 , -0.00025, 0)"
r3.mapcalc "hydcond = 0.00025"
r3.mapcalc "syield = 0.0001"
r.mapcalc  "recharge = 0.0"

r3.gwflow -s solver=cg phead=phead status=status hc_x=hydcond hc_y=hydcond  \
hc_z=hydcond q=well s=syield r=recharge output=gwresult dt=8640000 velocity=gwresult_velocity

# The data can be visualized with ParaView when exported with r3.out.vtk
r3.out.vtk -p in=gwresult,status vector=gwresult_velocity_x,gwresult_velocity_y,gwresult_velocity_z out=/tmp/gwdata3d.vtk

#now load the data into ParaView
paraview --data=/tmp/gwdata3d.vtk


r.gwflow, r3.out.vtk


Sören Gebbert

This work is based on the Diploma Thesis of Sören Gebbert available here at Technical University Berlin, Germany.

Last changed: $Date: 2011-09-13 13:13:36 -0700 (Tue, 13 Sep 2011) $

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