GRASS GIS 7 Programmer's Manual  7.5.svn(2018)-r72734
 All Data Structures Files Functions Variables Typedefs Enumerations Enumerator Friends Macros Pages
area_poly1.c
Go to the documentation of this file.
1 /*!
2  * \file lib/gis/area_poly1.c
3  *
4  * \brief GIS Library - Polygon area calculation routines.
5  *
6  * (C) 2001-2013 by the GRASS Development Team
7  *
8  * This program is free software under the GNU General Public License
9  * (>=v2). Read the file COPYING that comes with GRASS for details.
10  *
11  * \author Original author CERL
12  */
13 
14 #include <math.h>
15 #include <grass/gis.h>
16 #include "pi.h"
17 
18 #define TWOPI M_PI + M_PI
19 
20 static struct state {
21  double QA, QB, QC;
22  double QbarA, QbarB, QbarC, QbarD;
23  double AE; /** a^2(1-e^2) */
24  double Qp; /** Q at the north pole */
25  double E; /** Area of the earth */
26 } state;
27 
28 static struct state *st = &state;
29 
30 static double Q(double x)
31 {
32  double sinx, sinx2;
33 
34  sinx = sin(x);
35  sinx2 = sinx * sinx;
36 
37  return sinx * (1 + sinx2 * (st->QA + sinx2 * (st->QB + sinx2 * st->QC)));
38 }
39 
40 static double Qbar(double x)
41 {
42  double cosx, cosx2;
43 
44  cosx = cos(x);
45  cosx2 = cosx * cosx;
46 
47  return cosx * (st->QbarA + cosx2 * (st->QbarB + cosx2 * (st->QbarC + cosx2 * st->QbarD)));
48 }
49 
50 /*!
51  * \brief Begin area calculations.
52  *
53  * This initializes the polygon area calculations for the
54  * ellipsoid with semi-major axis <i>a</i> (in meters) and ellipsoid
55  * eccentricity squared <i>e2</i>.
56  *
57  * \param a semi-major axis
58  * \param e2 ellipsoid eccentricity squared
59  */
60 
61 void G_begin_ellipsoid_polygon_area(double a, double e2)
62 {
63  double e4, e6;
64 
65  e4 = e2 * e2;
66  e6 = e4 * e2;
67 
68  st->AE = a * a * (1 - e2);
69 
70  st->QA = (2.0 / 3.0) * e2;
71  st->QB = (3.0 / 5.0) * e4;
72  st->QC = (4.0 / 7.0) * e6;
73 
74  st->QbarA = -1.0 - (2.0 / 3.0) * e2 - (3.0 / 5.0) * e4 - (4.0 / 7.0) * e6;
75  st->QbarB = (2.0 / 9.0) * e2 + (2.0 / 5.0) * e4 + (4.0 / 7.0) * e6;
76  st->QbarC = -(3.0 / 25.0) * e4 - (12.0 / 35.0) * e6;
77  st->QbarD = (4.0 / 49.0) * e6;
78 
79  st->Qp = Q(M_PI_2);
80  st->E = 4 * M_PI * st->Qp * st->AE;
81  if (st->E < 0.0)
82  st->E = -st->E;
83 }
84 
85 /*!
86  * \brief Area of lat-long polygon.
87  *
88  * Returns the area in square meters of the polygon described by the
89  * <i>n</i> pairs of <i>lat,long</i> vertices for latitude-longitude
90  * grids.
91  *
92  * <b>Note:</b> This routine computes the area of a polygon on the
93  * ellipsoid. The sides of the polygon are rhumb lines and, in general,
94  * not geodesics. Each side is actually defined by a linear relationship
95  * between latitude and longitude, i.e., on a rectangular/equidistant
96  * cylindrical/Plate Carr{'e}e grid, the side would appear as a
97  * straight line. For two consecutive vertices of the polygon,
98  * (lat_1, long1) and (lat_2,long_2), the line joining them (i.e., the
99  * polygon's side) is defined by:
100  *
101  \verbatim
102  lat_2 - lat_1
103  lat = lat_1 + (long - long_1) * ---------------
104  long_2 - long_1
105  \endverbatim
106  *
107  * where long_1 < long < long_2.
108  * The values of QbarA, etc., are determined by the integration of
109  * the Q function. Into www.integral-calculator.com, paste this
110  * expression :
111  *
112  \verbatim
113  sin(x)+ (2/3)e^2(sin(x))^3 + (3/5)e^4(sin(x))^5 + (4/7)e^6(sin(x))^7
114  \endverbatim
115  *
116  * and you'll get their values. (Last checked 30 Oct 2013).
117  *
118  * This function correctly computes (within the limits of the series
119  * approximation) the area of a quadrilateral on the ellipsoid when
120  * two of its sides run along meridians and the other two sides run
121  * along parallels of latitude.
122  *
123  * \param lon array of longitudes
124  * \param lat array of latitudes
125  * \param n number of lat,lon pairs
126  *
127  * \return area in square meters
128  */
129 double G_ellipsoid_polygon_area(const double *lon, const double *lat, int n)
130 {
131  double x1, y1, x2, y2, dx, dy;
132  double Qbar1, Qbar2;
133  double area;
134  double thresh = 1e-6; /* threshold for dy, should be between 1e-4 and 1e-7 */
135 
136  x2 = Radians(lon[n - 1]);
137  y2 = Radians(lat[n - 1]);
138  Qbar2 = Qbar(y2);
139 
140  area = 0.0;
141 
142  while (--n >= 0) {
143  x1 = x2;
144  y1 = y2;
145  Qbar1 = Qbar2;
146 
147  x2 = Radians(*lon++);
148  y2 = Radians(*lat++);
149  Qbar2 = Qbar(y2);
150 
151  if (x1 > x2)
152  while (x1 - x2 > M_PI)
153  x2 += TWOPI;
154  else if (x2 > x1)
155  while (x2 - x1 > M_PI)
156  x1 += TWOPI;
157 
158  dx = x2 - x1;
159  dy = y2 - y1;
160 
161  if (fabs(dy) > thresh) {
162  /* account for different latitudes y1, y2 */
163  area += dx * (st->Qp - (Qbar2 - Qbar1) / dy);
164  /* original:
165  * area += dx * st->Qp - (dx / dy) * (Qbar2 - Qbar1);
166  */
167  }
168  else {
169  /* latitudes y1, y2 are (nearly) identical */
170  /* if y2 becomes similar to y1, i.e. y2 -> y1
171  * Qbar2 - Qbar1 -> 0 and dy -> 0
172  * (Qbar2 - Qbar1) / dy -> ?
173  * (Qbar2 - Qbar1) / dy should approach Q((y1 + y2) / 2)
174  * Metz 2017
175  */
176  area += dx * (st->Qp - Q((y1 + y2) / 2));
177  }
178  }
179  if ((area *= st->AE) < 0.0)
180  area = -area;
181 
182  /* kludge - if polygon circles the south pole the area will be
183  * computed as if it cirlced the north pole. The correction is
184  * the difference between total surface area of the earth and
185  * the "north pole" area.
186  */
187  if (area > st->E)
188  area = st->E;
189  if (area > st->E / 2)
190  area = st->E - area;
191 
192  return area;
193 }
#define M_PI
Definition: gis.h:115
#define x
#define M_PI_2
Definition: gis.h:118
struct state * st
Definition: parser.c:103
#define Radians(x)
Definition: pi.h:6
double G_ellipsoid_polygon_area(const double *lon, const double *lat, int n)
Area of lat-long polygon.
Definition: area_poly1.c:129
#define TWOPI
Definition: area_poly1.c:18
struct state state
Definition: parser.c:102
void G_begin_ellipsoid_polygon_area(double a, double e2)
Begin area calculations.
Definition: area_poly1.c:61