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Note: This document is for an older version of GRASS GIS that will be discontinued soon. You should upgrade, and read the current manual page.


v.extrude - Extrudes flat vector features to 3D vector features with defined height.
Optionally the height can be derived from sampling of elevation raster map.


vector, geometry, sampling, 3D


v.extrude --help
v.extrude [-t] input=name [layer=string] [cats=range] [where=sql_query] [type=string[,string,...]] output=name [zshift=float] [height=float] [height_column=name] [elevation=name] [method=string] [scale=float] [null_value=float] [--overwrite] [--help] [--verbose] [--quiet] [--ui]


Trace elevation
Allow output files to overwrite existing files
Print usage summary
Verbose module output
Quiet module output
Force launching GUI dialog


input=name [required]
Name of input vector map
Or data source for direct OGR access
Layer number or name ('-1' for all layers)
A single vector map can be connected to multiple database tables. This number determines which table to use. When used with direct OGR access this is the layer name.
Default: -1
Category values
Example: 1,3,7-9,13
WHERE conditions of SQL statement without 'where' keyword
Example: income < 1000 and population >= 10000
Input feature type
Options: point, line, area
Default: point,line,area
output=name [required]
Name for output vector map
Shifting value for z coordinates
Default: 0
Fixed height for 3D vector features
Name of attribute column with feature height
Elevation raster map for height extraction
Sampling interpolation method
Options: nearest, bilinear, bicubic
Default: nearest
nearest: Nearest-neighbor interpolation
bilinear: Bilinear interpolation
bicubic: Bicubic interpolation
Scale factor sampled raster values
Default: 1.0
Height for sampled raster NULL values

Table of contents


v.extrude creates faces, kernels or 3D lines based on input 2D vector features. Points are converted to 3D vertical lines, lines to faces and areas to volumes (composition of closed set of faces and kernel).

If elevation parameter is used then 3D vector features follow the elevation model by using individual elevation values for the vertices. Height for vertices is interpolated from elevation raster map using given interpolation method.


v.extrude extrudes vector features which means that points are converted to vertical lines. Lines and area boundaries are extruded to a set of faces, each segment defines one face. Area centroids are written as kernels. Area as a composition of boundaries and centroid is stored as a closed set of faces and kernel which define a volume.

For conversion of 2D points or lines to 3D can be used or v.drape. In opposite to v.extrude, these modules do not extrude vector features, they defines z-coordinate for the features from given parameters or by sampling elevation raster map values. It means that no feature type conversion is applied, points remain still points in the output vector map. Same applies for the lines.

v.extrude modifies only features geometry. Feature categories remain untouched and attribute data is copied from input vector map to the output.

By default, all features (including features without category) from input vector map are processed (layer=-1). Feature selection can be applied by layer, cats or where parameter.


3D houses with fixed height

v.extrude input=houses output=houses3D height=5 type=area

3D houses with individual height

v.extrude input=houses output=houses3D elevation=dem height_column=height type=area

Convert 2D points to 3D vertical lines with fixed height

v.extrude input=geodetic_pts output=points3D height=200 type=point


v.transform, v.drape,

wxGUI 3D viewer


Jachym Cepicky,
Updated for GRASS 7 by Martin Landa, FBK-irst, Italy and Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic


Available at: v.extrude source code (history)

Latest change: Friday Apr 07 09:46:47 2023 in commit: b3a33281ea8ed254b0a95ec07060fa0de4ec91b7

Note: This document is for an older version of GRASS GIS that will be discontinued soon. You should upgrade, and read the current manual page.

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