Note: A new GRASS GIS stable version has been released: GRASS GIS 7.6, available here.
Updated manual page: here
- Imports vector data into a GRASS vector map using OGR library.
, create location
v.in.ogr [-flc2tojrewi] input=string [layer=string[,string,...]] [output=name] [spatial=xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax[,xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax,...]] [where=sql_query] [min_area=float] [type=string[,string,...]] [snap=float] [location=name] [columns=name[,name,...]] [encoding=string] [key=string] [geometry=name] [--overwrite] [--help] [--verbose] [--quiet] [--ui]
- List supported OGR formats and exit
- List available OGR layers in data source and exit
- Do not clean polygons (not recommended)
- Force 2D output even if input is 3D
- Useful if input is 3D but all z coordinates are identical
- Do not create attribute table
- Override projection check (use current location's projection)
- Assume that the dataset has the same projection as the current location
- Perform projection check only and exit
- Limit import to the current region
- Extend region extents based on new dataset
- Also updates the default region if in the PERMANENT mapset
- Change column names to lowercase characters
- Create the location specified by the "location" parameter and exit. Do not import the vector data.
- Allow output files to overwrite existing files
- Print usage summary
- Verbose module output
- Quiet module output
- Force launching GUI dialog
- input=string [required]
- Name of OGR datasource to be imported
ESRI Shapefile: directory containing shapefiles
MapInfo File: directory containing mapinfo files
- OGR layer name. If not given, all available layers are imported
ESRI Shapefile: shapefile name
MapInfo File: mapinfo file name
- Name for output vector map
- Import subregion only
- Format: xmin,ymin,xmax,ymax - usually W,S,E,N
- WHERE conditions of SQL statement without 'where' keyword
- Example: income < 1000 and population >= 10000
- Minimum size of area to be imported (square meters)
- Smaller areas and islands are ignored. Should be greater than snap^2
- Default: 0.0001
- Optionally change default input type
- Options: point, line, boundary, centroid
- point: import area centroids as points
- line: import area boundaries as lines
- boundary: import lines as area boundaries
- centroid: import points as centroids
- Snapping threshold for boundaries (map units)
- '-1' for no snap
- Default: -1
- Name for new location to create
- List of column names to be used instead of original names, first is used for category column
- Encoding value for attribute data
- Overrides encoding interpretation, useful when importing ESRI Shapefile
- Name of column used for categories
- If not given, categories are generated as unique values and stored in 'cat' column
- Name of geometry column
- If not given, all geometry columns from the input are used
imports vector data from files and database connections
supported by the OGR
library) into the
current location and mapset.
If the layer parameter is not given, all available OGR layers
are imported as separate GRASS layers into one GRASS vector map. If
several OGR layer names are given, all these layers are imported as
separate GRASS layers into one GRASS vector map.
The optional spatial parameter defines spatial query extents.
This parameter allows the user to restrict the region to a spatial
subset while importing the data. All vector features completely or
partially falling into this rectangle subregion are imported.
The -r current region flag is identical, but uses the current
region settings as the spatial bounds
uses the OGR library which supports various vector
data formats including ESRI Shapefile
, Mapinfo File
, UK .NTF,
SDTS, TIGER, IHO S-57 (ENC), DGN, GML, GPX, AVCBin, REC, Memory, OGDI,
and PostgreSQL, depending on the local OGR installation. For details
see the OGR web
. The -f
prints a list of the vector formats supported
by the system's OGR (Simple Features Library). The OGR (Simple Features
Library) is part of the GDAL
hence GDAL needs to be installed to use v.in.ogr
The list of actually supported formats can be printed by -f flag.
Topology cleaning on areas is automatically performed, but may fail in
special cases. In these cases, a snap
threshold value is
estimated from the imported vector data and printed out at the end. The
vector data can then be imported again with the suggested snap
threshold value which is incremented by powers of 10 until either an
estimated upper limit for the threshold value is reached or the topology
cleaning on areas was successful. In some cases, manual cleaning might
be required or areas are truly overlapping, e.g. buffers created with
The min_area threshold value is being specified as area size in
map units with the exception of latitude-longitude locations in which
it is being specified solely in square meters.
The snap threshold value is used to snap boundary vertices to
each other if the distance in map units between two vertices is not
larger than the threshold. Snapping is by default disabled with
-1. See also the v.clean manual.
When importing overlapping polygons, the overlapping parts will become
new areas with multiple categories, one unique category for each
original polygon. An original polygon will thus be converted to
multiple areas with the same shared category. These multiple areas
will therefore also link to the same entry in the attribute table. A
single category value may thus refer to multiple non-overlapping areas
which together represent the original polygon overlapping with another
polygon. The original polygon can be recovered by
with the desired
category value or where
statement and the -d
dissolve common boundaries.
attempts to preserve projection information when
importing datasets if the source format includes projection
information, and if the OGR driver supports it. If the projection of
the source dataset does not match the projection of the current
will report an error message
("Projection of dataset does not appear to match current
If the user wishes to ignore the difference between the apparent
coordinate system of the source data and the current location, they
may pass the -o flag to override the projection check.
If the user wishes to import the data with the full projection
definition, it is possible to have v.in.ogr automatically
create a new location based on the projection and extents of the file
being read. This is accomplished by passing the name to be used for
the new location via the location parameter. Upon completion
of the command, a new location will have been created (with only a
PERMANENT mapset), and the vector map will have been imported with the
indicated output name into the PERMANENT mapset.
An interesting wrapper command around v.in.ogr is
v.import which reprojects (if needed) the
vector dataset during import to the projection of the current location.
The characters which are eligible for table column names are limited
by the SQL standard. Supported are:
This means that SQL neither supports '.' (dots) nor '-' (minus) nor
'#' in table column names. Also a table name must start with a
character, not a number.
v.in.ogr converts '.', '-' and '#' to '_' (underscore) during
import. The -w flag changes capital column names to
lowercase characters as a convenience for SQL usage (lowercase column
names avoid the need to quote them if the attribute table is stored in
a SQL DBMS such as PostgreSQL). The columns parameter is used
to define new column names during import.
The DBF database specification limits column names to 10 characters.
If the default DB is set to DBF and the input data contains longer
column/field names, they will be truncated. If this results in
multiple columns with the same name then v.in.ogr will
produce an error. In this case you will either have to modify the
input data or use
v.in.ogr's columns parameter to rename columns to something
unique. (hint: copy and modify the list given with the error message).
Alternatively, change the local DB with
When importing ESRI Shapefiles the OGR library tries to read the
LDID/codepage setting from the .dbf file and use it to translate
string fields to UTF-8. LDID "87 / 0x57" is treated as
ISO8859_1 which may not be appropriate for many
languages. Unfortunately it is not clear what other values may be
appropriate (see example below). To change encoding the user can set
environmental variable or simply to define
encoding value using encoding
parameter. Note that recoding
support is new for GDAL/OGR 1.9.0.
Value for encoding also affects text recoding when importing
DXF files. For other formats has encoding value no effect.
specifies the column name used for feature
categories. This column must be integer. If not specified, categories
numbers are generated starting with 1 and stored in the column named
Starting with GDAL 1.11 the library supports multiple geometry columns
in OGR. By default v.in.ogr
reads all geometry columns from
given layer. The user can choose desired geometry column
see example below
For vector data like a grid, horizontal lines need to be broken at their
intersections with vertical lines (v.clean ... tool=break
The command imports various vector formats:
v.in.ogr input=/home/user/shape_data/test_shape.shp output=grass_map
v.in.ogr input=/home/user/shape_data layer=test_shape output=grass_map
Define encoding value for attribute data (in this example we expect
encoding; ie. in Central/Eastern European languages that
use Latin script, Microsoft Windows encoding).
v.in.ogr input=/home/user/shape_data/test_shape.shp output=grass_map encoding=cp1250
v.in.ogr input=./ layer=mapinfo_test output=grass_map
We import the Arcs and Label points, the module takes care to build
v.in.ogr input=gemeinden layer=LAB,ARC type=centroid,boundary output=mymap
See also v.in.e00
First we have to convert the E00 file to an Arc Coverage with
tools, use e00conv first in case that avcimport
avcimport e00file coverage
v.in.ogr input=coverage layer=LAB,ARC type=centroid,boundary output=mymap
You have to select the CATD file.
v.in.ogr input=CITXCATD.DDF output=cities
v.in.ogr input=input/2000/56015/ layer=CompleteChain,PIP output=t56015_all \
Import polygons as areas:
v.in.ogr input="PG:host=localhost dbname=postgis user=postgres" layer=polymap \
If the table containing the polygons are in a specific schema, you can use:
v.in.ogr input="PG:host=localhost dbname=postgis user=postgres" \
Generally, v.in.ogr just follows the
syntax defined by the OGR library.
are available in
.osm (XML based) and .pbf (optimized binary) formats. The .pbf format
is recommended because file sizes are smaller. The OSM driver will
categorize features into 5 layers :
- points: "node" features that have significant tags attached.
- lines: "way" features that are recognized as non-area.
- multilinestrings: "relation" features that form a
multilinestring(type = 'multilinestring' or type = 'route').
- multipolygons: "relation" features that form a multipolygon (type
= 'multipolygon' or type = 'boundary'), and "way" features that are
recognized as area.
- other_relations: "relation" features that do
not belong to any of the above layers.
It is recommended to import one layer at a time.
Import of OSM data requires a configuration file, defined with the
OSM_CONFIG_FILE configuration option. In the data folder of the GDAL
distribution, you can find a osmconf.ini file
that can be customized to fit your needs. See
OSM map features
for keys and their values. You should set "other_tags=no" to
avoid problems with import or querying the imported vector. Once a
OSM_CONFIG_FILE has been created, OSM data can be imported with e.g.
v.in.ogr input=name.pbf layer=lines output=osm_data
Note that you have to set the environment-variables ORACLE_BASE,
v.in.ogr input=OCI:username/password@database_instance output=grasslayer layer=roads_oci
This example shows how to work with data which contain multiple
geometry per feature. The number of geometry columns per feature can
be checked by v.external
together with -t
v.external -t input=20141130_ST_UKSH.xml.gz
In our example layer "Okresy" has three geometry columns:
"DefinicniBod", "OriginalniHranice" and
"GeneralizovanaHranice". By default v.in.ogr
reads data from
all three geometry columns. The user can specify desired geometry
column by geometry
option, in this case the module will read
geometry only from the specified geometry column. In the example below,
the output vector map will contain only geometry saved in
"OriginalniHranice" geometry column.
v.in.ogr input=20141130_ST_UKSH.xml.gz layer=Okresy geometry=OriginalniHranice
If a message like
WARNING: Area size 1.3e-06, area not imported
appears, the min_area
may be adjusted to a
smaller value so that all areas are imported. Otherwise tiny areas are
filtered out during import (useful to polish digitization errors or
If a message like
Try to import again, snapping with at least 1e-008: 'snap=1e-008'
appears, then the map to be imported
contains topological errors. The message suggests a value for the
parameter to be tried. For more details, see above in
Depending on the currently selected SQL driver, error messages such as follows may arise:
DBMI-SQLite driver error:
Error in sqlite3_prepare():
near "ORDER": syntax error
DBMI-DBF driver error:
SQL parser error:
syntax error, unexpected DESC, expecting NAME processing 'DESC
This indicates that a column name in the input dataset corresponds to a reserved
SQL word (here: 'ORDER' and 'DESC' respectively). A different column name has to be
used in this case. The columns
parameter can be used to assign different
column names on the fly in order to avoid using reserved SQL words.
For a list of SQL reserved words for SQLite (the default driver),
Projection of dataset does not appear to match the current location.
Here you need to create or use a location whose projection matches that
of the vector data you wish to import. Try using location
create a new location based upon the projection information in the file. If
desired, you can then re-project it to another location
GRASS GIS Wiki page: Import of Global datasets
Original author: Radim Blazek, ITC-irst, Trento, Italy
Location and spatial extent support by Markus Neteler and Paul Kelly
Various improvements by Markus Metz
Multiple geometry columns support by Martin Landa, OSGeoREL, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic
Last changed: $Date: 2018-10-14 04:08:21 -0700 (Sun, 14 Oct 2018) $
Available at: v.in.ogr source code (history)
Note: A new GRASS GIS stable version has been released: GRASS GIS 7.6, available here.
Updated manual page: here
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GRASS Development Team,
GRASS GIS 7.4.5svn Reference Manual