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NAME

r.bearing.distance - Find the bearing and/or straight-line distance from all non-null cells to the specified point.

KEYWORDS

raster, azimuth, direction, bearing

SYNOPSIS

r.bearing.distance
r.bearing.distance --help
r.bearing.distance [-rabse] input=name coordinate=x,y [reference_bearing=double] [bearing=string] [distance=string] [segment=string] [csv_seg=string] [csv_ax=string] [--overwrite] [--help] [--verbose] [--quiet] [--ui]

Flags:

-r
Reverse bearing (i.e. bearing towards point location)
-a
Bearing difference is axial (0 - 90 degrees) rather than clockwise)
-b
Bearing difference is axial and signed (0 - +/-90 degrees) rather than clockwise)
-s
Segments are clockwise from zero rather than centred on zero
-e
Compute eight segments rather than four
--overwrite
Allow output files to overwrite existing files
--help
Print usage summary
--verbose
Verbose module output
--quiet
Quiet module output
--ui
Force launching GUI dialog

Parameters:

input=name [required]
Raster map containing non-null cells for which bearing is to be computed
coordinate=x,y [required]
Coordinate identifying the point location
reference_bearing=double
Bearing in degrees from N (for calculation of bearing difference map)
bearing=string
Raster map name for storing the bearing
distance=string
Raster map name for storing the distance
segment=string
Raster map name for storing the segment
csv_seg=string
Output plain text CSV file for segment counts
csv_ax=string
Output plain text CSV file for axial difference counts

Table of contents

DESCRIPTION

r.bearing.distance computes the bearing and/or straight-line distance from a point location to all non-NULL cells in a raster map. Optionally, the bearing returned in each non-NULL cell may be:

By default, the bearing map records the bearing of a straight line projected from the point location to each non-NULL cell in the input map. If the -r flag is set then this map records the reverse bearing, i.e. that of a straight line projected from each non-NULL cell towards the point location. The point location itself is coded NULL, irrespective of whether it was NULL or non-NULL in the input map.

If a reference_bearing is specified without the -a or -b flags then the bearing map will by default record the bearing relative to the reference bearing. This relative bearing is the clockwise difference between the reference bearing and the bearing that would otherwise have been recorded. For example: if the bearing is 315 degrees and the reference bearing 270 degrees, the relative bearing would be +45 degrees; if the bearing is 45 degrees and the reference bearing 270 degrees, the relative bearing would be +135 degrees.

If a reference_bearing is specified along with the -a flag then the bearing map will record the bearing relative to an axis defined by the reference bearing, such that if the bearing is aligned (or 180 degrees opposite) the reference bearing the difference will be zero degrees, and if it is orthogonal the difference will be +90 degrees.

If a reference_bearing is specified along with the -b flag then the bearing map will record the signed bearing relative to an axis defined by the reference bearing, such that if the bearing is aligned (or 180 degrees opposite) the reference bearing the difference will be zero degrees, if it is orthogonal in a clockwise direction the difference will be +90 degrees, and if it is orthogonal in an anticlockwise direction the difference will be -90 degrees.

The distance map records the straight-line distance from the point location to each non-NULL cell in the input map. The distance is computed using the geographic coordinates of the point location and the geographic coordinates of the centre of each non-NULL map cell.

The segment map records which azimuthal segment the bearing (or relative bearing) falls in. The -e flag determines whether 4 or 8 segments are returned. The -s flag determines whether segments are centred on a bearing (or relative bearing) of zero degrees, or start clockwise from zero degrees.

The csv_seg file is a plain text CSV file which records the count and percentage of cells falling in each of the segments.

The csv_ax file is only available if an axial relative bearing has been requested by setting the -a or -b flags. In the case of an axial relative bearing (-a) this plain text CSV file records the count of cells whose relative bearing (θ) falls in each of 5 ranges: θ = 0; 0 < θ ≤ 22.5; 22.5 < θ ≤ 45; 45 < θ ≤ 67.5; 67.5 < θ ≤ 90. It also records the mean value of θ. In the case of a signed axial relative bearing (-b) this file distinguishes positive and negative values of θ. It also records separate means and standard deviations of the positive and negative values of θ in addition to an overall mean and standard deviation.

NOTES

This module was originally written for an archaeological investigation of the orientation of viewsheds from prehistoric burial mounds, but it will be useful for visibility analysis in a range of academic disciplines, as well as planning and environmental management. Indeed, it potentially has application for any kind of analysis which involves a set of non-NULL cells that are somehow related to a point location.

In the case of visibility analysis, the -r flag will be particularly useful when a viewshed has been produced with observer and target offsets set so as to compute the visibility from each cell back towards the point location set as the 'viewpoint'. With the -r flag the bearing returned will similarly be that from each cell in the viewshed back towards the point location of interest.

The code does not currently deal with Lat/Long databases.

The module only runs when the current region has integer resolution (since the algorithm is not robust in cases where resolution is non-integer). The code might work satisfactorily when the map resolution in non-integer, but this has not been rigorously checked.

REFERENCES

SEE ALSO

r.viewshed

AUTHOR

Mark Lake, UCL Institute of Archaeology, University College London, UK. (the author).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Functionality developed in consultation with Barney Harris, UCL Institute of Archaeology, University College London, UK.

SOURCE CODE

Available at: r.bearing.distance source code (history)


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