## NAME

**r.grow** - Generates a raster map layer with contiguous areas grown by one cell.

## KEYWORDS

raster,

distance,

proximity
## SYNOPSIS

**r.grow**

**r.grow --help**
**r.grow** [-**m**] **input**=*name* **output**=*name* [**radius**=*float*] [**metric**=*string*] [**old**=*integer*] [**new**=*integer*] [--**overwrite**] [--**help**] [--**verbose**] [--**quiet**] [--**ui**]

### Flags:

**-m**
- Radius is in map units rather than cells
**--overwrite**
- Allow output files to overwrite existing files
**--help**
- Print usage summary
**--verbose**
- Verbose module output
**--quiet**
- Quiet module output
**--ui**
- Force launching GUI dialog

### Parameters:

**input**=*name* **[required]**
- Name of input raster map
**output**=*name* **[required]**
- Name for output raster map
**radius**=*float*
- Radius of buffer in raster cells
- Default:
*1.01*
**metric**=*string*
- Metric
- Options:
*euclidean, maximum, manhattan*
- Default:
*euclidean*
**old**=*integer*
- Value to write for input cells which are non-NULL (-1 => NULL)
**new**=*integer*
- Value to write for "grown" cells

*r.grow* adds cells around the perimeters of all areas
in a user-specified raster map layer and stores the output in
a new raster map layer. The user can use it to grow by one or
more than one cell (by varying the size of the

**radius**
parameter), or like

*r.buffer*, but with the
option of preserving the original cells (similar to combining

*r.buffer* and

*r.patch*).

If **radius** is negative,*r.grow* shrinks areas by removing
cells around the perimeters of all areas.

The user has the option of specifying three different metrics which
control the geometry in which grown cells are created, (controlled by
the

**metric** parameter):

*Euclidean*,

*Manhattan*, and

*Maximum*.

The *Euclidean distance* or *Euclidean metric* is the "ordinary" distance
between two points that one would measure with a ruler, which can be
proven by repeated application of the Pythagorean theorem.
The formula is given by:

d(dx,dy) = sqrt(dx^2 + dy^2)

Cells grown using this metric would form isolines of distance that are
circular from a given point, with the distance given by the

**radius**.

The *Manhattan metric*, or *Taxicab geometry*, is a form of geometry in
which the usual metric of Euclidean geometry is replaced by a new
metric in which the distance between two points is the sum of the (absolute)
differences of their coordinates. The name alludes to the grid layout of
most streets on the island of Manhattan, which causes the shortest path a
car could take between two points in the city to have length equal to the
points' distance in taxicab geometry.
The formula is given by:

d(dx,dy) = abs(dx) + abs(dy)

where cells grown using this metric would form isolines of distance that are
rhombus-shaped from a given point.

The *Maximum metric* is given by the formula

d(dx,dy) = max(abs(dx),abs(dy))

where the isolines of distance from a point are squares.

If there are two cells which are equal candidates to grow into an empty space,
*r.grow* will choose the northernmost candidate; if there are multiple
candidates with the same northing, the westernmost is chosen.

In this example, the lakes map in the
North Carolina sample dataset location is buffered:

g.region raster=lakes -p
# the lake raster map pixel resolution is 10m
r.grow input=lakes output=lakes_grown_100m radius=10

Shrinking instead of growing:

g.region raster=lakes -p
# the lake raster map pixel resolution is 10m
r.grow input=lakes output=lakes_shrunk_100m radius=-10

*
r.buffer,
r.grow.distance,
r.patch
*
*Wikipedia Entry: Euclidean Metric*

*Wikipedia Entry: Manhattan Metric*

Marjorie Larson,
U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory

Glynn Clements

## SOURCE CODE

Available at: r.grow source code (history)

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GRASS Development Team,
GRASS GIS 7.8.3dev Reference Manual