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Note: This document is for an older version of GRASS GIS that will be discontinued soon. You should upgrade, and read the current manual page.


r.futures.simulation - Wrapper for r.futures.pga to ensure forward compatibility.
Simulates landuse change using FUTure Urban-Regional Environment Simulation (FUTURES).


raster, patch growing, urban, landscape, modeling


r.futures.simulation --help
r.futures.simulation [-s] developed=name subregions=name [subregions_potential=name] predictors=name[,name,...] development_pressure=name n_dev_neighbourhood=integer development_pressure_approach=string gamma=float scaling_factor=float output=name [output_series=basename] devpot_params=name demand=name [separator=character] patch_sizes=name num_neighbors=integer discount_factor=float seed_search=string compactness_mean=float compactness_range=float [num_steps=integer] [potential_weight=name] [incentive_power=float] [random_seed=integer] [memory=float] [--overwrite] [--help] [--verbose] [--quiet] [--ui]


Generate random seed (result is non-deterministic)
Automatically generates random seed for random number generator (use when you don't want to provide the seed option)
Allow output files to overwrite existing files
Print usage summary
Verbose module output
Quiet module output
Force launching GUI dialog


developed=name [required]
Raster map of developed areas (=1), undeveloped (=0) and excluded (no data)
subregions=name [required]
Raster map of subregions
Raster map of subregions used with potential file
If not specified, the raster specified in subregions parameter is used
predictors=name[,name,...] [required]
Names of predictor variable raster maps
Listed in the same order as in the development potential table
development_pressure=name [required]
Raster map of development pressure
n_dev_neighbourhood=integer [required]
Size of square used to recalculate development pressure
development_pressure_approach=string [required]
Approaches to derive development pressure
Options: occurrence, gravity, kernel
Default: gravity
gamma=float [required]
Influence of distance between neighboring cells
scaling_factor=float [required]
Scaling factor of development pressure
output=name [required]
State of the development at the end of simulation
Basename for raster maps of development generated after each step
Name for output basename raster map(s)
devpot_params=name [required]
CSV file with development potential parameters for each region
Each line should contain region ID followed by parameters (intercepts, development pressure, other predictors). First line is ignored, so it can be used for header
demand=name [required]
CSV file with number of cells to convert for each step and subregion
Field separator
Separator used in input CSV files
Default: comma
patch_sizes=name [required]
File containing list of patch sizes to use
num_neighbors=integer [required]
The number of neighbors to be used for patch generation (4 or 8)
Options: 4, 8
Default: 4
discount_factor=float [required]
Discount factor of patch size
seed_search=string [required]
The way location of a seed is determined (1: uniform distribution 2: development probability)
Options: random, probability
Default: probability
compactness_mean=float [required]
Mean value of patch compactness to control patch shapes
compactness_range=float [required]
Range of patch compactness to control patch shapes
Number of steps to be simulated
Raster map of weights altering development potential
Values need to be between -1 and 1, where negative locally reducesprobability and positive increases probability.
Exponent to transform probability values p to p^x to simulate infill vs. sprawl
Values > 1 encourage infill, < 1 urban sprawl
Options: 0-10
Default: 1
Seed for random number generator
The same seed can be used to obtain same results or random seed can be generated by other means.
Memory in GB

Table of contents


Module r.futures.pga will be renamed to r.futures.simulation. This module is only a wrapper for r.futures.pga for forward compatibility.


FUTURES, r.futures.pga, r.futures.potential, r.futures.devpressure, r.futures.demand, r.futures.calib, r.sample.category



Anna Petrasova, NCSU GeoForAll


Available at: r.futures.simulation source code (history)

Latest change: Thursday Jun 23 08:55:52 2022 in commit: de1f13a3f5382fcd17de2cbc8c1fa8dfaa87d21a

Note: This document is for an older version of GRASS GIS that will be discontinued soon. You should upgrade, and read the current manual page.

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