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Note: This document is for an older version of GRASS GIS that will be discontinued soon. You should upgrade, and read the current manual page.


r.path - Traces paths from starting points following input directions.


raster, hydrology, cost surface


r.path --help
r.path [-can] input=name format=string [values=name] [raster_path=name] [vector_path=name] [start_coordinates=east,north[,east,north,...]] [start_points=name[,name,...]] [--overwrite] [--help] [--verbose] [--quiet] [--ui]


Copy input cell values on output
Accumulate input values along the path
Count cell numbers along the path
Allow output files to overwrite existing files
Print usage summary
Verbose module output
Quiet module output
Force launching GUI dialog


input=name [required]
Name of input direction
Direction in degrees CCW from east, or bitmask encoded
format=string [required]
Format of the input direction map
Options: auto, degree, 45degree, bitmask
Default: auto
auto: auto-detect direction format
degree: degrees CCW from East
45degree: degrees CCW from East divided by 45 (e.g. r.watershed directions)
bitmask: bitmask encoded directions (e.g. r.cost -b)
Name of input raster values to be used for output
Name of input raster map
Name for output raster path map
Name for output raster map
Name for output vector path map
Name for output vector map
Coordinates of starting point(s) (E,N)
Name of starting vector points map(s)
Or data source(s) for direct OGR access

Table of contents


r.path traces a path from starting points following input directions. Such a movement direction map can be generated with r.walk, r.cost, r.slope.aspect, r.watershed, or r.fill.dir, provided that the direction is in degrees, measured counterclockwise from east.

Alternatively, bitmask-encoded directions can be provided where each bit position corresponds to a specific neighbour. A path will continue to all neighbours with their bit set. This means a path can split and merge. Such bitmasked directions can be created with the -b flag of r.cost and r.walk.

Direction encoding for neighbors of x
  135  90  45          7 8 1
  180  x  360          6 x 2
  225 270 315          5 4 3
  degrees           bit positions
  CCW from East
A path stops when the direction is zero or negative, indicating a stop point or outlet.

The output raster map will show one or more least-cost paths between each user-provided location(s) and the target points (direction ≤ 0). By default, the output will be an integer CELL map with the id of the start points along the least cost path, and null cells elsewhere.

With the -c (copy) flag, the values raster map cell values are copied verbatim along the path. With the -a (accumulate) flag, the accumulated cell value from the starting point up to the current cell is written on output. With either the -c or the -a flags, the raster_path map is created with the same cell type as the values raster map (integer, float or double). With the -n (number) flag, the cells are numbered consecutively from the starting point to the final point. The -c, -a, and -n flags are mutually incompatible.

The start_coordinates parameter consists of map E and N grid coordinates of a starting point. Each x,y pair is the easting and northing (respectively) of a starting point from which a path will be traced following input directions. The start_points parameter can take multiple vector maps containing additional starting points.


The directions are recorded as degrees CCW from East, the Knight's move of r.cost and r.walk is considered:
       112.5     67.5          
157.5  135   90  45   22.5     
       180   x   0            
202.5  225  270  315  337.5
       247.5     292.5
i.e. a cell with the value 135 means the next cell is to the North-West, and a cell with the value 157.5 means that the next cell is to the West-North-West.


Hydrological path

We are using the full North Carolina sample dataset. First we create the two points from a text file using module (here the text file is CSV and we are using unix here-file syntax with EOF, in GUI just enter the values directly for the parameter input): input=- output=start format=point separator=comma <<EOF
We need to supply a direction raster map to the r.path module. To get these directions, we use the r.watershed module:
r.watershed elevation=elev_lid792_1m accumulation=accum drainage=drain_dir
The directions are categorical and we convert them to degrees using raster algebra:
r.mapcalc "drain_deg = if(drain_dir != 0, 45. * abs(drain_dir), null())"
Now we are ready to extract the drainage paths starting at the two points.
r.path input=drain_deg raster_path=drain_path vector_path=drain_path start_points=start
Before we visualize the result, we set a color table for the elevation we are using and create a shaded relief map:
r.colors map=elev_lid792_1m color=elevation
r.relief input=elev_lid792_1m output=relief
We visualize the input and output data:
d.shade shade=relief color=elev_lid792_1m
d.vect map=drain_path color=0:0:61 width=4 legend_label="drainage paths"
d.vect map=start color=none fill_color=224:0:0 icon=basic/circle size=15 legend_label=origins
d.legend.vect -b
drainage using r.watershed
Figure: Drainage paths from two points where directions from r.watershed were used

Least-cost path

We compute bitmask encoded movement directions using r.walk:
g.region swwake_30m -p

# create friction map based on land cover
r.recode input=landclass96 output=friction rules=- << EOF

# without Knight's move
r.walk -b elevation=elev_ned_30m friction=friction output=walkcost \
    outdir=walkdir start_coordinates=635576,216485

r.path input=walkdir start_coordinates=640206,222795 \
    raster_path=walkpath vector_path=walkpath

# with Knight's move
r.walk -b -k elevation=elev_ned_30m friction=friction output=walkcost_k \
    outdir=walkdir_k start_coordinates=635576,216485

r.path input=walkdir_k start_coordinates=640206,222795 \
    raster_path=walkpath_k vector_path=walkpath_k

# without Knight's move and without bitmask encoding (single direction)
r.walk elevation=elev_ned_30m friction=friction output=walkcost_s \
    outdir=walkdir_s start_coordinates=635576,216485

r.path input=walkdir_s start_coordinates=640206,222795 \
    raster_path=walkpath_s vector_path=walkpath_s
The extracted least-cost path splits and merges on the way from the start point to the stop point (start point for r.walk). Note the gaps in the raster path when using the Knight's move.
least cost path using bitmask
Figure: Comparison of shortest paths using single directions and multiple bitmask encoded directions without and with Knight's move


g.region, r.basins.fill, r.cost, r.fill.dir, r.mapcalc, r.recode, r.terraflow, r.walk, r.watershed


Markus Metz
Multiple path directions sponsored by mundialis


Available at: r.path source code (history)

Latest change: Thursday Feb 03 11:10:06 2022 in commit: 547ff44e6aecfb4c9cbf6a4717fc14e521bec0be

Note: This document is for an older version of GRASS GIS that will be discontinued soon. You should upgrade, and read the current manual page.

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