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Note: A new GRASS GIS stable version has been released: GRASS GIS 7, available here. And see the new manual page here

GRASS GIS 6.4.6svn Reference Manual

Geographic Resources Analysis Support System, commonly referred to as GRASS, is a Geographic Information System (GIS) used for geospatial data management and analysis, image processing, graphics/maps production, spatial modeling, and visualization. GRASS is currently used in academic and commercial settings around the world, as well as by many governmental agencies and environmental consulting companies.

This reference manual details the use of modules distributed with Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS), an open source (GNU GPL'ed), image processing and geographic information system (GIS).

Go back to help overview

Full command index:

[ d.* | db.* | g.* | i.* | m.* | ps.* | r.* | r3.* | v.* ]

  d.* display commands
  db.* database commands
  g.* general commands
  i.* imagery commands
  m.* miscellaneous commands
  ps.* postscript commands
  r.* raster commands
  r3.* raster3D commands
  v.* vector commands
  gis.m GUI frontend to GIS menus and display
  nviz visualization suite
  wxGUI wxPython-based GUI frontend
  xganim raster map slideshow

d.* commands:

d.ask Prompts the user to select a GRASS data base file from among files displayed in a menu on the graphics monitor.
d.barscale Displays a barscale on the graphics monitor.
d.colorlist Output a list of all available display colors with a configurable separator (default is comma).
d.colors Allows the user to interactively change the color table of a raster map layer displayed on the graphics monitor.
d.colortable Displays the color table associated with a raster map layer.
d.correlate Prints a graph of the correlation between raster maps (in pairs).
d.erase Erase the contents of the active display frame with user defined color
d.extend Sets window region so that all currently displayed raster and vector maps can be shown in a monitor.
d.extract Selects and extracts vectors with mouse into new vector map.
d.font Selects the font in which text will be displayed on the user's graphics monitor.
d.frame Manages display frames on the user's graphics monitor.
d.geodesic Displays a geodesic line, tracing the shortest distance between two geographic points along a great circle, in a longitude/latitude data set.
d.graph Program for generating and displaying simple graphics on the display monitor.
d.grid Overlays a user-specified grid in the active display frame on the graphics monitor.
d.his Displays the result obtained by combining hue, intensity, and saturation (his) values from user-specified input raster map layers.
d.histogram Displays a histogram in the form of a pie or bar chart for a user-specified raster map.
d.info Display information about the active display monitor
d.labels Displays text labels (created with v.label) to the active frame on the graphics monitor.
d.legend Displays a legend for a raster map in the active frame of the graphics monitor.
d.linegraph Generates and displays simple line graphs in the active graphics monitor display frame.
d.mapgraph Generates and displays simple graphics on map layers drawn in the active graphics monitor display frame.
d.measure Measures the lengths and areas of features drawn by the user in the active display frame on the graphics monitor.
d.menu Creates and displays a menu within the active frame on the graphics monitor.
d.m Display manager for GRASS
d.mon To establish and control use of a graphics display monitor.
d.monsize Selects/starts specified monitor at specified size
d.mvmon Moves displayed maps to another monitor
d.nviz Creates fly-through script to run in NVIZ.
d.out.file Saves the contents of the active display monitor to a graphics file.
d.out.gpsdrive Export display monitor to a GpsDrive compatible backdrop image
d.out.png Saves active display monitor to PNG file in home directory
d.path Finds shortest path for selected starting and ending node.
d.polar Draws polar diagram of angle map such as aspect or flow directions
d.profile Interactive profile plotting utility with optional output.
d.rast.arrow Draws arrows representing cell aspect direction for a raster map containing aspect data.
d.rast.edit Interactively edit cell values in a raster map.
d.rast Displays user-specified raster map in the active graphics frame.
d.rast.leg Displays a raster map and its legend on a graphics window
d.rast.num Overlays cell category values on a raster map layer displayed to the graphics monitor.
d.redraw Redraws the current display frame in the GRASS monitor
d.resize Resizes active display monitor
d.rgb Displays three user-specified raster maps as red, green, and blue overlays in the active graphics frame.
d.rhumbline Displays the rhumbline joining two user-specified points, in the active frame on the user's graphics monitor.
d.save Creates a list of commands for recreating screen graphics.
d.shadedmap Drapes a color raster over a shaded relief map using d.his.
d.slide.show Slide show of GRASS raster/vector maps.
d.split.frame Split the display into subframes.
d.split Divides active display into two frames & displays maps/executes commands in each frame.
d.text Draws text in the active display frame on the graphics monitor using the current font.
d.thematic.area Displays a thematic vector area map in the active frame on the graphics monitor.
d.title Create a TITLE for a raster map in a form suitable for display with d.text.
d.vect.chart Displays charts of vector data in the active frame on the graphics monitor.
d.vect Displays user-specified vector map in the active graphics frame.
d.vect.thematic Displays thematic vector map
d.what.rast Allows the user to interactively query the category contents of multiple raster map layers at user specified locations within the current geographic region.
d.what.vect Allows the user to interactively query a vector map layer at user-selected locations within the current geographic region.
d.where Identifies the geographic coordinates associated with point locations in the active frame on the graphics monitor.
d.zoom Allows the user to change the current geographic region settings interactively, with a mouse.

db.* commands:

db.columns List all columns for a given table.
db.connect Prints/sets general DB connection for current mapset and exits.
db.copy Copy a table.
db.describe Describes a table in detail.
db.drivers Lists all database drivers.
db.dropcol Drops a column from selected attribute table
db.droptable Drops an attribute table.
db.execute Executes any SQL statement.
db.in.ogr Imports attribute tables in various formats.
db.login Sets user/password for driver/database.
db.out.ogr Exports attribute tables into various formats.
db.select Selects data from attribute table (performs SQL query statement(s)).
db.tables Lists all tables for a given database.
db.test Test database driver, database must exist and set by db.connect.

g.* commands:

g.access Controls access to the current mapset for other users on the system.
g.ask Prompts the user for the names of GRASS data base files.
g.copy Copies available data files in the user's current mapset search path and location to the appropriate element directories under the user's current mapset.
g.dirseps Internal GRASS utility for converting directory separator characters.
g.extension Tool to maintain GRASS extensions in local GRASS installation.
g.filename Prints GRASS data base file names.
g.findetc Searches for GRASS support files.
g.findfile Searches for GRASS data base files and sets variables for the shell.
g.gisenv Outputs and modifies the user's current GRASS variable settings.
g.gui Launches a GRASS graphical user interface (GUI) session.
g.list Lists available GRASS data base files of the user-specified data type.
g.manual Display the HTML man pages of GRASS
g.mapset Changes current mapset.
g.mapsets Modifies the user's current mapset search path.
g.message Prints a message, warning, progress info, or fatal error in the GRASS way.
g.mkfontcap Generates the font configuration file by scanning various directories for fonts
g.mlist Lists available GRASS data base files of the user-specified data type optionally using the search pattern.
g.mremove Removes data base element files from the user's current mapset.
g.parser Provides automated parser, GUI, and help support for GRASS scipts.
g.pnmcomp Overlays multiple PPM image files
g.proj Prints and manipulates GRASS projection information files (in various co-ordinate system descriptions).
g.region Manages the boundary definitions for the geographic region.
g.remove Removes data base element files from the user's current mapset.
g.rename Renames data base element files in the user's current mapset.
g.setproj Interactively reset the location's projection settings.
g.tempfile Creates a temporary file and prints the file name.
g.transform Computes a coordinate transformation based on the control points.
g.version Displays version and copyright information.

i.* commands:

i.atcorr Performs atmospheric correction using the 6S algorithm.
i.cca Canonical components analysis (cca) program for image processing.
i.class Generates spectral signatures for an image by allowing the user to outline regions of interest.
i.cluster Generates spectral signatures for land cover types in an image using a clustering algorithm.
i.fft Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for image processing.
i.fusion.brovey Brovey transform to merge multispectral and high-res panchromatic channels
i.gensig Generates statistics for i.maxlik from raster map.
i.gensigset Generates statistics for i.smap from raster map.
i.group Creates, edits, and lists groups and subgroups of imagery data.
i.his.rgb Transforms raster maps from HIS (Hue-Intensity-Saturation) color space to RGB (Red-Green-Blue) color space.
i.ifft Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) for image processing.
i.image.mosaic Mosaics up to 4 images and extends colormap; creates map *.mosaic
i.in.spotvgt Import of SPOT VGT NDVI file into a raster map
i.landsat.acca Performs Landsat TM/ETM+ Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment (ACCA).
i.landsat.rgb Performs auto-balancing of colors for LANDSAT images.
i.landsat.toar Calculates top-of-atmosphere radiance or reflectance and temperature for Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI
i.maxlik Classifies the cell spectral reflectances in imagery data.
i.modis.qc Extracts quality control parameters from Modis QC layers.
i.oif Calculates Optimum-Index-Factor table for LANDSAT TM bands 1-5, & 7
i.ortho.photo Menu driver for the photo imagery programs.
i.pca Principal components analysis (PCA) for image processing.
i.photo.2image Interactively mark fiducial or reseau points on an image.
i.photo.2target Creates control points on an image to be ortho-rectified.
i.photo.camera Interactively select and modify the imagery group camera reference file.
i.photo.init Interactively creates or modifies entries in a camera initial exposure station file for imagery group referenced by a sub-block.
i.photo.rectify Orthorectifies an image by using the image to photo coordinate transformation matrix.
i.points Mark ground control points on image to be rectified.
i.rectify Rectifies an image by computing a coordinate transformation for each pixel in the image based on the control points.
i.rgb.his Transforms raster maps from RGB (Red-Green-Blue) color space to HIS (Hue-Intensity-Saturation) color space.
i.smap Performs contextual image classification using sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP) estimation.
i.spectral Displays spectral response at user specified locations in group or images.
i.target Targets an imagery group to a GRASS location and mapset.
i.tasscap Tasseled Cap (Kauth Thomas) transformation for LANDSAT-TM data
i.topo.corr Computes topographic correction of reflectance.
i.vpoints Set registration points for an imagery group from a vector map or keyboard entry.
i.zc Zero-crossing "edge detection" raster function for image processing.

m.* commands:

m.cogo A simple utility for converting bearing and distance measurements to coordinates and vice versa.
m.nviz.image Creates a 3D rendering of GIS data.
m.proj Convert coordinates from one projection to another (cs2cs frontend).

ps.* commands:

ps.map Produces hardcopy PostScript map output.

r.* commands:

r.average Finds the average of values in a cover map within areas assigned the same category value in a user-specified base map.
r.basins.fill Generates watershed subbasins raster map.
r.bilinear Bilinear interpolation utility for raster map layers.
r.bitpattern Compares bit patterns with a raster map.
r.blend Blends color components of two raster maps by a given ratio.
r.buffer Creates a raster map layer showing buffer zones surrounding cells that contain non-NULL category values.
r.carve Generates stream channels.
r.category Manages category values and labels associated with user-specified raster map layers.
r.circle Creates a raster map containing concentric rings around a given point.
r.clump Recategorizes data in a raster map by grouping cells that form physically discrete areas into unique categories.
r.coin Tabulates the mutual occurrence (coincidence) of categories for two raster map layers.
r.colors Creates/modifies the color table associated with a raster map layer.
r.colors.out Exports the color table associated with a raster map layer.
r.colors.stddev Set color rules based on stddev from a map's mean value.
r.composite Combines red, green and blue raster maps into a single composite raster map.
r.compress Compresses and decompresses raster maps.
r.contour Produces a vector map of specified contours from a raster map.
r.cost Creates a raster map showing the cumulative cost of moving between different geographic locations on an input raster map whose cell category values represent cost.
r.covar Outputs a covariance/correlation matrix for user-specified raster map layer(s).
r.cross Creates a cross product of the category values from multiple raster map layers.
r.describe Prints terse list of category values found in a raster map layer.
r.digit Interactive tool used to draw and save vector features on a graphics monitor using a pointing device (mouse) and save to a raster map.
r.distance Locates the closest points between objects in two raster maps.
r.drain Traces a flow through an elevation model on a raster map.
r.external Link GDAL supported raster file to a binary raster map layer.
r.fill.dir Filters and generates a depressionless elevation map and a flow direction map from a given elevation raster map.
r.fillnulls Fills no-data areas in raster maps using spline interpolation.
r.flow Construction of slope curves (flowlines), flowpath lengths, and flowline densities (upslope areas) from a raster digital elevation model (DEM).
r.grow.distance Generates a raster map containing distances to nearest raster features.
r.grow Generates a raster map layer with contiguous areas grown by one cell.
r.gwflow Numerical calculation program for transient, confined and unconfined groundwater flow in two dimensions.
r.his Generates red, green and blue raster map layers combining hue, intensity and saturation (HIS) values from user-specified input raster map layers.
r.horizon Horizon angle computation from a digital elevation model.
r.in.arc Converts an ESRI ARC/INFO ascii raster file (GRID) into a (binary) raster map layer.
r.in.ascii Converts ASCII raster file to binary raster map layer.
r.in.aster Georeference, rectify and import Terra-ASTER imagery and relative DEM's using gdalwarp.
r.in.bin Import a binary raster file into a GRASS raster map.
r.info Output basic information about a raster map layer.
r.in.gdal Import GDAL supported raster file into a binary raster map layer.
r.in.gridatb Imports GRIDATB.FOR map file (TOPMODEL) into GRASS raster map
r.in.mat Imports a binary MAT-File(v4) to a GRASS raster.
r.in.poly Creates raster maps from ASCII polygon/line/point data files.
r.in.srtm Import SRTM HGT files into GRASS
r.in.wms Downloads and imports data from WMS servers.
r.in.xyz Create a raster map from an assemblage of many coordinates using univariate statistics.
r.kappa Calculate error matrix and kappa parameter for accuracy assessment of classification result.
r.lake Fills lake at given point to given level.
r.le.patch Calculates attribute, patch size, core (interior) size, shape, fractal dimension, and perimeter measures for sets of patches in a landscape.
r.le.pixel Contains a set of measures for attributes, diversity, texture, juxtaposition, and edge.
r.le.setup Interactive tool used to setup the sampling and analysis framework that will be used by the other r.le programs.
r.le.trace Displays the boundary of each r.le patch and shows how the boundary is traced, displays the attribute, size, perimeter and shape indices for each patch and saves the data in an output file.
r.li.cwed Calculates contrast weighted edge density index on a raster map
r.li.daemon Support module for r.li landscape index calculations.
r.li.dominance Calculates dominance's diversity index on a raster map
r.li.edgedensity Calculates edge density index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm
r.li Landscape structure analysis package overview.
r.li.mpa Calculates mean pixel attribute index on a raster map
r.li.mps Calculates mean patch size index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm
r.li.padcv Calculates coefficient of variation of patch area on a raster map
r.li.padrange Calculates range of patch area size on a raster map
r.li.padsd Calculates standard deviation of patch area a raster map
r.li.patchdensity Calculates patch density index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm
r.li.patchnum Calculates patch number index on a raster map, using a 4 neighbour algorithm.
r.li.pielou Calculates Pielou's diversity index on a raster map
r.li.renyi Calculates Renyi's diversity index on a raster map
r.li.richness Calculates richness index on a raster map
r.li.setup Configuration editor for r.li.'index'
r.li.shannon Calculates Shannon's diversity index on a raster map
r.li.shape Calculates shape index on a raster map
r.li.simpson Calculates Simpson's diversity index on a raster map
r.los Line-of-sight raster analysis program.
r.mapcalc Raster map calculator.
r.mapcalculator Calculate new raster map from a r.mapcalc expression.
r.mask Creates a MASK for limiting raster operation.
r.median Finds the median of values in a cover map within areas assigned the same category value in a user-specified base map.
r.mfilter.fp Raster map matrix filter.
r.mfilter Performs raster map matrix filter.
r.mode Finds the mode of values in a cover map within areas assigned the same category value in a user-specified base map.
r.neighbors Makes each cell category value a function of the category values assigned to the cells around it, and stores new cell values in an output raster map layer.
r.null Manages NULL-values of given raster map.
r.out.arc Converts a raster map layer into an ESRI ARCGRID file.
r.out.ascii Converts a raster map layer into an ASCII text file.
r.out.bin Exports a GRASS raster map to a binary array.
r.out.gdal Exports GRASS raster maps into GDAL supported formats.
r.out.gdal.sh Exports GRASS raster into GDAL supported formats.
r.out.gridatb Exports GRASS raster map to GRIDATB.FOR map file (TOPMODEL)
r.out.mat Exports a GRASS raster to a binary MAT-File.
r.out.mpeg Raster File Series to MPEG Conversion.
r.out.png Export GRASS raster as non-georeferenced PNG image.
r.out.pov Converts a raster map layer into a height-field file for POVRAY.
r.out.ppm3 Converts 3 GRASS raster layers (R,G,B) to a PPM image file at the pixel resolution of the CURRENTLY DEFINED REGION.
r.out.ppm Converts a GRASS raster map to a PPM image file at the pixel resolution of the currently defined region.
r.out.tiff Exports a GRASS raster map to a 8/24bit TIFF image file at the pixel resolution of the currently defined region.
r.out.vrml Export a raster map to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)
r.out.vtk Converts raster maps into the VTK-Ascii format
r.out.xyz Export a raster map to a text file as x,y,z values based on cell centers.
r.pack Packs up a raster map and support files for copying.
r.param.scale Extracts terrain parameters from a DEM.
r.patch Creates a composite raster map layer by using known category values from one (or more) map layer(s) to fill in areas of "no data" in another map layer.
r.plane Creates raster plane map given dip (inclination), aspect (azimuth) and one point.
r.profile Outputs the raster map layer values lying on user-defined line(s).
r.proj Re-projects a raster map from one location to the current location.
r.quant Produces the quantization file for a floating-point map.
r.quantile Compute quantiles using two passes.
r.random.cells Generates random cell values with spatial dependence.
r.random Creates a raster map layer and vector point map containing randomly located points.
r.random.surface Generates random surface(s) with spatial dependence.
r.reclass.area Reclasses a raster map greater or less than user specified area size (in hectares).
r.reclass Reclassify raster map based on category values.
r.recode Recodes categorical raster maps.
r.region Sets the boundary definitions for a raster map.
r.regression.line Calculates linear regression from two raster maps: y = a + b*x.
r.report Reports statistics for raster map layers.
r.resamp.interp Resamples raster map layers to a finer grid using interpolation.
r.resample GRASS raster map layer data resampling capability.
r.resamp.rst Reinterpolates and optionally computes topographic analysis from input raster map to a new raster map (possibly with different resolution) using regularized spline with tension and smoothing.
r.resamp.stats Resamples raster map layers to a coarser grid using aggregation.
r.rescale.eq Rescales histogram equalized the range of category values in a raster map layer.
r.rescale Rescales the range of category values in a raster map layer.
r.ros Generates three, or four raster map layers showing 1) the base (perpendicular) rate of spread (ROS), 2) the maximum (forward) ROS, 3) the direction of the maximum ROS, and optionally 4) the maximum potential spotting distance.
r.series Makes each output cell value a function of the values assigned to the corresponding cells in the input raster map layers.
r.shaded.relief Creates shaded relief map from an elevation map (DEM).
r.sim.sediment Sediment transport and erosion/deposition simulation using path sampling method (SIMWE).
r.sim.water Overland flow hydrologic simulation using path sampling method (SIMWE).
r.slope.aspect Generates raster maps of slope, aspect, curvatures and partial derivatives from a elevation raster map.
r.spread Simulates elliptically anisotropic spread on a graphics window and generates a raster map of the cumulative time of spread, given raster maps containing the rates of spread (ROS), the ROS directions and the spread origins.
r.spreadpath Recursively traces the least cost path backwards to cells from which the cumulative cost was determined.
r.statistics Calculates category or object oriented statistics.
r.stats Generates area statistics for raster map layers.
r.sum Sums up the raster cell values.
r.sun Solar irradiance and irradiation model.
r.sunmask Calculates cast shadow areas from sun position and elevation raster map.
r.support Allows creation and/or modification of raster map layer support files.
r.support.stats Update raster map statistics
r.surf.area Surface area estimation for rasters.
r.surf.contour Surface generation program from rasterized contours.
r.surf.fractal Creates a fractal surface of a given fractal dimension.
r.surf.gauss GRASS module to produce a raster map layer of gaussian deviates whose mean and standard deviation can be expressed by the user. It uses a gaussian random number generator.
r.surf.idw2 Surface generation program.
r.surf.idw Surface interpolation utility for raster map.
r.surf.random Produces a raster map of uniform random deviates whose range can be expressed by the user.
r.terraflow Flow computation for massive grids (float version).
r.texture Generate images with textural features from a raster map.
r.thin Thins non-zero cells that denote linear features in a raster map.
r.tileset Produces tilings of the source projection for use in the destination region and projection.
r.timestamp Modifies a timestamp for a raster map.
r.topidx Creates topographic index map from elevation raster map.
r.topmodel Simulates TOPMODEL which is a physically based hydrologic model.
r.to.rast3elev Creates a 3D volume map based on 2D elevation and value raster maps.
r.to.rast3 Converts 2D raster map slices to one 3D raster volume map.
r.to.vect Converts a raster map into a vector map.
r.transect Outputs raster map layer values lying along user defined transect line(s).
r.univar Calculates univariate statistics from the non-null cells of a raster map.
r.univar.sh calculates univariate statistics from a GRASS raster map
r.unpack Unpacks a raster map packed with r.pack.
r.volume Calculates the volume of data "clumps", and (optionally) produces a GRASS vector points map containing the calculated centroids of these clumps.
r.walk Creates a raster map showing the anisotropic cumulative cost of moving between different geographic locations on an input raster map whose cell category values represent cost.
r.water.outlet Watershed basin creation program.
r.watershed Watershed basin analysis program.
r.what.color Queries colors for a raster map layer.
r.what Queries raster map layers on their category values and category labels.

r3.* commands:

r3.cross.rast Creates cross section 2D raster map from 3D raster map based on 2D elevation map.
r3.gwflow Calculates numerically transient, confined groundwater flow in three dimensions.
r3.in.ascii Converts a 3D ASCII raster text file into a (binary) 3D raster map layer.
r3.info Outputs basic information about a user-specified 3D raster map layer.
r3.in.v5d Imports 3-dimensional Vis5D files (i.e. the V5D file with 1 variable and 1 time step).
r3.mapcalc 3D raster map calculator.
r3.mapcalculator Calculates new grid3D volume from r3.mapcalc expression.
r3.mask Establishes the current working 3D raster mask.
r3.mkdspf Creates a display file from an existing 3D raster map according to specified threshold levels.
r3.null Explicitly create the 3D NULL-value bitmap file.
r3.out.ascii Converts a 3D raster map layer into an ASCII text file.
r3.out.v5d Exports GRASS 3D raster map to 3-dimensional Vis5D file.
r3.out.vtk Converts 3D raster maps into the VTK-ASCII format.
r3.stats Generates volume statistics for 3D raster maps.
r3.timestamp Print/add/remove a timestamp for a 3D raster map
r3.to.rast Converts 3D raster maps to 2D raster maps
r3.univar Calculates univariate statistics from the non-null 3d cells of a raster3d map.

v.* commands:

v.buffer Creates a buffer around vector features of given type.
v.build.all Rebuilds topology on all vector maps in the current mapset.
v.build Creates topology for GRASS vector map.
v.build.polylines Builds polylines from lines or boundaries.
v.category Attach, delete or report vector categories to map geometry.
v.centroids Adds missing centroids to closed boundaries.
v.class Classifies attribute data, e.g. for thematic mapping
v.clean Toolset for cleaning topology of vector map.
v.colors Set color rules for features in a vector using a numeric attribute column.
v.convert.all Converts all older versions of GRASS vector maps in current mapset to current format.
v.convert Imports older versions of GRASS vector maps.
v.db.addcol Adds one or more columns to the attribute table connected to a given vector map.
v.db.addtable Creates and connects a new attribute table to a given layer of an existing vector map.
v.db.connect Prints/sets DB connection for a vector map to attribute table.
v.db.dropcol Drops a column from the attribute table connected to a given vector map.
v.db.droptable Removes existing attribute table of a vector map.
v.db.join Joins a database table to a vector map table.
v.db.reconnect.all Reconnects vectors to a new database.
v.db.renamecol Renames a column in the attribute table connected to a given vector map.
v.db.select Prints vector map attributes.
v.db.univar Calculates univariate statistics on selected table column for a GRASS vector map.
v.db.update Updates a column in the attribute table connected to a vector map.
v.delaunay Creates a Delaunay triangulation from an input vector map containing points or centroids.
v.digit Interactive editing and digitization of vector maps.
v.dissolve Dissolves boundaries between adjacent areas sharing a common category number or attribute.
v.distance Finds the nearest element in vector map 'to' for elements in vector map 'from'.
v.drape Converts vector map to 3D by sampling of elevation raster map.
v.edit Edits a vector map, allows adding, deleting and modifying selected vector features.
v.external Creates a new vector as a read-only link to OGR layer.
v.extract Selects vector objects from an existing vector map and creates a new map containing only the selected objects.
v.extrude Extrudes flat vector object to 3D with defined height.
v.generalize Vector based generalization.
v.hull Produces a convex hull for a given vector map.
v.in.ascii Creates a vector map from ASCII points file or ASCII vector file.
v.in.db Creates new vector (points) map from database table containing coordinates.
v.in.dxf Converts files in DXF format to GRASS vector map format.
v.in.e00 Import E00 file into a vector map.
v.info Outputs basic information about a user-specified vector map.
v.in.garmin Download waypoints, routes, and tracks from a Garmin GPS receiver into a vector map.
v.in.geonames Imports geonames.org country files into a GRASS vector points map.
v.in.gns Imports US-NGA GEOnet Names Server (GNS) country files into a GRASS vector points map.
v.in.gpsbabel Import waypoints, routes, and tracks from a GPS receiver or GPS download file into a vector map.
v.in.lines Import ASCII x,y[,z] coordinates as a series of lines.
v.in.mapgen Imports Mapgen or Matlab-ASCII vector maps into GRASS.
v.in.ogr Convert OGR vector layers to GRASS vector map.
v.in.region Creates a vector polygon from the current region extent.
v.in.sites.all Converts all old GRASS < Ver5.7 sites maps in current mapset to vector maps.
v.in.sites Converts a GRASS site_lists file into a vector map.
v.in.wfs Import GetFeature from WFS
v.kcv Randomly partition points into test/train sets.
v.kernel Generates a raster density map from vector point data using a moving kernel or optionally generates a vector density map on a vector network.
v.label Creates paint labels for a vector map from attached attributes.
v.label.sa Create optimally placed labels for vector map(s)
v.lidar.correction Correction of the v.lidar.growing output. It is the last of the three algorithms for LIDAR filtering.
v.lidar.edgedetection Detects the object's edges from a LIDAR data set.
v.lidar.growing Building contour determination and Region Growing algorithm for determining the building inside
v.lrs.create Creates Linear Reference System
v.lrs.label Creates stationing from input lines, and linear reference system
v.lrs.segment Creates points/segments from input lines, linear reference system and positions read from stdin or a file.
v.lrs.where Finds line id and real km+offset for given points in vector map using linear reference system.
v.mkgrid Creates a GRASS vector map of a user-defined grid.
v.neighbors Makes each cell value a function of the attribute values assigned to the vector points or centroids around it, and stores new cell values in an output raster map layer.
v.net.alloc Allocate subnets for nearest centres (direction from centre).
v.net.allpairs Computes the shortest path between all pairs of nodes in the network.
v.net.bridge Computes bridges and articulation points in the network.
v.net.centrality Computes degree, centrality, betweeness, closeness and eigenvector centrality measures in the network.
v.net.components Computes strongly and weakly connected components in the network.
v.net.connectivity Computes vertex connectivity between two sets of nodes in the network.
v.net.distance Computes shortest distance via the network between the given sets of features.
v.net.flow Computes the maximum flow between two sets of nodes in the network.
v.net Performs network maintenance.
v.net.iso Splits net by cost isolines.
v.net.path Finds shortest path on vector network.
v.net.salesman Creates a cycle connecting given nodes (Traveling salesman problem).
v.net.spanningtree Computes minimum spanning tree for the network.
v.net.steiner Create Steiner tree for the network and given terminals
v.net.timetable Finds shortest path using timetables.
v.net.visibility Visibility graph construction.
v.normal Tests for normality for points.
v.out.ascii Converts a GRASS binary vector map to a GRASS ASCII vector map.
v.out.dxf Exports GRASS vector map layers to DXF file format.
v.out.gpsbabel Exports a vector map to a GPS receiver or file format supported by GpsBabel.
v.outlier Removes outliers from vector point data.
v.out.ogr Converts GRASS vector map to one of the supported OGR vector formats.
v.out.pov Converts to POV-Ray format, GRASS x,y,z -> POV-Ray x,z,y
v.out.svg Exports a GRASS vector map to SVG.
v.out.vtk Converts a GRASS binary vector map to VTK ASCII output.
v.overlay Overlays two vector maps.
v.parallel Creates parallel line to input vector lines.
v.patch Create a new vector map layer by combining other vector map layers.
v.perturb Random location perturbations of GRASS vector points
v.proj Re-projects a vector map from one location to the current location.
v.qcount Indices for quadrat counts of sites lists.
v.random Randomly generate a 2D/3D vector points map.
v.rast.stats Calculates univariate statistics from a raster map based on a vector map and uploads statistics to new attribute columns.
v.reclass Changes vector category values for an existing vector map according to results of SQL queries or a value in attribute table column.
v.report Reports geometry statistics for vectors.
v.sample Samples a raster map at vector point locations.
v.segment Creates points/segments from input vector lines and positions.
v.select Selects features from vector map (A) by features from other vector map (B).
v.split Split lines to shorter segments.
v.support Updates vector map metadata.
v.surf.bspline Bicubic or bilinear spline interpolation with Tykhonov regularization.
v.surf.idw Surface interpolation from vector point data by Inverse Distance Squared Weighting.
v.surf.rst Spatial approximation and topographic analysis from given point or isoline data in vector format to floating point raster format using regularized spline with tension.
v.to.3d Performs transformation of 2D vector features to 3D.
v.to.db Populates database values from vector features.
v.to.points Create points along input lines in new vector with 2 layers.
v.to.rast3 Converts a binary GRASS vector map (only points) layer into a 3D GRASS raster map layer.
v.to.rast Converts (rasterize) a vector map into a raster map.
v.transform Performs an affine transformation (shift, scale and rotate, or GPCs) on vector map.
v.type Change the type of geometry elements.
v.univar Calculates univariate statistics for attribute. Variance and standard deviation is calculated only for points if specified.
v.univar.sh Calculates univariate statistics on selected table column for a GRASS vector map.
v.vect.stats Count points in areas, calculate statistics.
v.vol.rst Interpolates point data to a 3D raster map using regularized spline with tension (RST) algorithm.
v.voronoi Creates a Voronoi diagram from an input vector map containing points or centroids.
v.what Queries a vector map layer at given locations.
v.what.rast Uploads raster values at positions of vector points to the table.
v.what.vect Uploads vector values at positions of vector points to the table.



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© 2003-2016 GRASS Development Team, GRASS GIS 6.4.6svn Reference Manual